Monday, 30 November 2015

Sunday, 29 November 2015

10 Things to Teach Your Kids about Failure

Former United States President Harry Truman’s father struggled his whole life to eke out a living as a farmer. Unfortunately, a drought hit and the farm had to be foreclosed on. Many years later, a reporter asked Harry why his father was a failure. Harry replied, “How can my father have been a failure when his son is President of the United States?”
We can fail in a lot of areas. Work. Investing. Sports. You name it. But, we can't fail our children and their future.

How do we avoid messing up? By spending as much time as possible with our kids and making them a priority. By loving them and using encouraging words. By hugging them whether they feel comfortable with it or not. Harry loved his father because he was a good dad.

Here are the 10 things to teach your kids about overcoming failure:

1. Not Everybody Gets A Trophy

Somewhere along the line we became a society that preached instant gratification. Like a giant carnival, our slogan became “everybody wins all the time.” We know it’s not true. It’s also a terrible example to set. Losing is every bit as important in human growth as winning. Rewarding your child for doing nothing will teach him just that. Nothing. 

2. Everyone Has Different Talents

Maybe your daughter wants to be the next Carrie Underwood. Then you hear her sing. Your son wants to be Derek Jeter, he can't hit the ball off a tee. There are just some things we aren't cut out for. It's best to learn that at an early age. The good news is that they are a champion at something. Guide them towards where their gifts lie.

3. Have Class

What is one of the most flattering descriptions a person can hear? “He sure has a lot of class.” “She sure was a great sport about it.” Are you teaching your children how to fail with dignity? How a person accepts failure is an easy indicator of the character within. It also almost guarantees future success. Respect is gained outwardly and inwardly. Coach Tony Dungy is prime example of class.

4. Learning From Mistakes

“I think and think for months. For years. Ninety-nine times the conclusion is false. The hundredth time I am right.” Who said that? Albert Einstein. Mistakes humble. They can hurt. Yet without them, we are stagnant. Every mistake we make is an educational experience. Every success is built upon a foundation of errors and corrections.

5. Teaching Other

When we fail, we gain experience. It's important to share that knowledge. Use it to mentor others experiencing similar difficulties. Instill in your children the responsibility to share their mistakes in hopes to save another from making the same.

6. Leave It All On The Field

Boxing legend Joe Frazier once said, “If I lose, I'll walk away and never feel bad because I did all I could. There was nothing more to do.” The most common phrase in sports has to be “leave it all on the field!” Explain to your kids to never cheat themselves on effort and they will always gain from it. No matter the outcome.

7. Perseverance

Determination wins many victories. We should not allow our children to give up on themselves. Maybe your son has brought home two straight failing test grades in maths. He thinks there is no way he will ever get it. Help him pick himself back up and try again. Perseverance will eventually lead to positive results and a lifelong lesson never to be forgotten.

8. Know How To Win

It might sound obvious, but knowing how to win is the easiest way not to lose. For instance, your son is selling popcorn for the Boy Scouts. He knocks on two hundred random doors and sells twenty packages in four hours. A lot of effort for little gain. The next day he sets up a stand in front a busy grocery store. Uniform on. Charm intact. He sells two hundred packages in a single hour. Which was the most successful tactic? Game planning is an essential part of a successful life.


9. Definition Of Success

Looking into the future, what do you wish for your son? I'm guessing happiness tops that list. He's a respected and honest man. Has a loving wife and a family of his own. I highly doubt you would look into the future and hope he has an awesome car. He has seven hot girlfriends. He's shallow and in it for the money. Yet, that is exactly what is marketed at him. Eternal failure. Society teaches shallowness to be equal to success. As a parent, it is up to you to define success.


10. Sense Of Humour

There are times in life we are going to do really stupid things. The ability to laugh about it sure makes those moments a lot easier to deal with. When you make mistakes in front of your kids, set that example. Don't curse and scream at the sky. Just shake your head and laugh. It happens.

Source: http://www.allprodad.com/

Quote for the day

“You have power over your mind - not outside events. Realize this, and you will find strength.” - Marcus Aurelius

Saturday, 28 November 2015

Wrong Equations About Life That Many People Believe In


18 Things Financially Mature People Don’t Do

By Kyle Young

Jaws dropped during that classic scene in the 1995 movie Sabrina. Sabrina's father is revealed to be more than just a quiet chauffeur with a passion for good books. He's shockingly a millionaire! How did he accrue such wealth on a presumably modest salary?


 By imitating the investing habits of his prosperous employer. You too can learn from financially mature people. You can avoid costly mistakes by watching what they do – and perhaps more importantly, what they don't do.


1. They don't spend more than they make

A recent Yahoo Finance study found that “fewer than half of Americans are spending less than they earn.” This problem is compounded by high credit card interest rates. If you're finding it difficult to stick to a budget, try switching to cash as your currency. This will quickly stop the bleeding because once cash is gone the spending has to stop.

2. They don't wait until the end of the month to see how their money is doing

Credit card bills should be formalities, not surprises. Expense tracking apps(or a pen and paper) help you stay on top of your money.

3. They don't pay for subscriptions they aren't using

Gym memberships, magazine subscriptions, and season tickets to your favorite team’s games are great – if you actually use them. Spend some time going through your credit card statement and cancel a few forgotten subscriptions. Chances are, you won’t miss them.

4. They don't overlook small expenses

Small expenses add up. Look for opportunities to reduce them. Relax the air conditioning when you leave the house, turn off the lights in an empty room, use a refillable water bottle instead of buying a new case every week.

5. They don't automatically spend “surprise money”

Tax returns and birthday money don't have to be spent the day they're received. Put some in savings, or use it to pay off debt.

6. They don't use shopping to help them feel better

Shark Tank's Kevin O'Leary argues that “retail therapy” should be avoided altogether. But come on now. We're the species that invented sugarless candy – surely we can redeem the post-break up shopping spree? 

Here's an idea: When heartbreak or frustration beckons you to the mall, think of one item you actually need. Maybe it's a new pair of work shoes or a birthday gift for a friend. Set a “budget” for yourself and take only the CASH for that item. Then, enjoy a little shopping.

7. They don't gift shop at the last minute

It happens to the best of us. We remember a birthday or anniversary with mere hours to spare. Then we’re off the nearest store in search of a last-minute gift and in our panic, we buy something expensive to hide the fact that we don’t have a card and the gift isn’t wrapped. Gifts are given to express love and affection. Shopping a little sooner can help you find a thoughtful, less expensive gift that shows how much you care. 

8. They don't eat out every meal

A recent experiment conducted by the Boston Globe found one home cooked meal cost half the price of a comparable restaurant meal.

9. They don't waste leftovers

One of the easiest ways to make eating out more affordable is to simply save your leftovers. You can turn one meal into two.

10. They don't let purchased food expire

Throwing away food is throwing away money. If you struggle with stinky fridge syndrome, try making more frequent trips to the grocery store. Buy exactly what you'll need for the next 2 or 3 days, instead of “stocking up” for the week or the month.

11. They don't spend money without stopping to think

Have you ever examined an old purchase and wondered, “What was I thinking?” 

Financially mature people ask the right question: “Do I absolutely love this?” Skip this step, and you'll find yourself in need of a garage sale.

12. They don't buy clothes they won’t wear regularly

Closet full of clothes yet “nothing to wear”? Save space and money by searching for versatile pieces you can't wait to show off. Here's a minimalist who's happy to show you how (with photos).

13. They don't buy something just because it's a discount

An old episode of The Lucy Show poked fun at this common mistake. Lucy chided her friend for buying a 50lb bag of dog food. Her friend defended herself saying “that was half price.” To which Lucy hilariously replied, “You don't have a dog!” If you find yourself thinking “These shoes are half off, and they're not that bad,” take the money and buy a pair of shoes you actually like. You're more likely to get some use out of them.

14. They don't buy anything without asking the price

It's an old trick. Selling stuff without ever mentioning the price and it works, because we're often too embarrassed to ask how much something costs. We don't want anyone thinking we're poor, but we have it backwards. Poor is what you'll be if you don't ask the hard questions.

15. They don't avoid expenses that save them trouble and money in the future

Getting the oil changed may be annoying, but it's cheaper than a new car. Getting your teeth cleaned may be uncomfortable, but would you rather have a root canal? When you're trying to cut back on spending, trim from the fat, not the essentials.

16. They don't buy into get rich quick schemes

When people really do strike proverbial gold, they probably don't tell the world about it in a “business opportunity” seminar. Financially mature people know that wealth comes through hard work and good choices over time.

17. They don't forget to set financial goals

Without a clear goal and a doable plan, people tend to stay right where they are. Good goals illuminate the path between where you are and where you want to be.

18. They don't let past mistakes keep them from improving

Peek at the statistics and you'll quickly learn most of us aren't very good with money. With practice, patience, and persistence, you can grow into financial maturity. You just have to get started. There's an old saying. If you want a big oak tree in your backyard, the best time to plant it was 20 years ago. The second best time? Right now. 


Use these tips to start imitating the financially mature. Because let's face it. Life's more fun when there's some money in the bank.
http://www.lifehack.org/

Quote for the day

“Speculators in stock markets have lost money. But I believe it is a safe statement that the money lost by speculation alone is small compared with the gigantic sums lost by so-called investors who have let their investments ride.” - Jesse Livermore

Friday, 27 November 2015

27-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary

Quote for the day

“I look for conditions of disequilibrium. They send out certain signals that activate me. So my decisions are really made using a combination of theory and instinct. If you like, you may call it intuition.” -  George Soros

Thursday, 26 November 2015

26-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary


Quote for the day

“What the caterpillar calls the end of the world, the master calls a butterfly. “- Richard Bach

Wednesday, 25 November 2015

Quote for the day

“To learn which questions are unanswerable, and not to answer them: this skill is most needful in times of stress and darkness.” - Ursula K. Le Guin

Tuesday, 24 November 2015

24-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary

Quote for the day

“Press on – nothing can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Perseverance and determination alone are omnipotent.”– Calvin Coolidg

Monday, 23 November 2015

23-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary

Quote for the day

“Good information, thoughtful analysis, quick but not impulsive reactions, and knowledge of the historic interaction between companies, sectors, countries, and asset classes under similar circumstances in the past are all important ingredients in getting the legendary 'it' right that we all strive so desperately for.” -  Barton Biggs

Sunday, 22 November 2015

5 Trading Lessons from a Market Wizard

By Steve Burns


Top Five Trading Lessons From Market Wizard Dr. Van. K. Tharp from the book “Market Wizards”:

“The composite profile of a losing trader would be someone who is highly stressed and has little protection from stress, has a negative outlook on life and expects the worst, has a lot of conflict in his/her personality, and blames others when things go wrong. Such a person would not have a set of rules to guide their behavior and would be more likely a crowd follower. In addition, losing traders tend to be disorganized and impatient.”

The profitable trader is able to manage stress, has a positive outlook on life and expects the best from themselves and their trading. They take responsibility for their wins and losses. They know who they are and are in touch with their goals. They have specific rules to guide their trading and are organized and patient.

“The simple truth is that most people are risk-aversive in the realm of profits – they prefer a sure, smaller gain to a wise gamble for a larger gain – and risk-seeking in the realm of losses – they prefer an unwise gamble to a sure loss. As a result, most people tend to do the opposite of what is required for success. They cut their profits short and let their losses run.”

Most traders are unprofitable because they take profits quickly but let losers run. Many traders can have a nice winning streak or be profitable in a bull market only to give back their profits with one big loss or lose all their bull market profits during the next bear market.

“Most people approach trading to make a lot of money, and that is one of the primary reasons they lose.”

The best way to go broke fast is try to get rich quick. Trying to speed up the process of big profits usually just leads to huge losses.

“If you are really committed, then not only are you certain that you are doing the right thing, but somehow events just seem to occur to help you.”

If you really want to be a profitable trader only time separates you from your goal. If you do the work, learn, grow, and persevere you will eventually get to where you are going if that is what you truly want.

“The realization that you are responsible for the results you get is the key to successful investing. Winners know they are responsible for their results; losers think they are not.”


Blaming high frequency traders, dumb money, option pinning, market makers, insider traders, or simply “them” for your trading losses is not going to do anything to help your trading. The only real metric to measure whether your trades are good trades is whether you followed your trading rules with discipline. We only control whether we follow or planned entries and exits then the market determines whether we make money or lose money.

Quote for the day

“If you care about ego and I don't, then I will always best you in the end, because ego is an impediment to growth and learning and thus to winning. Real strength is not ability to maintain a prideful self-image, but willingness to completely discard that image in pursuit of a higher goal.” -  Jack Sparrow

Saturday, 21 November 2015

11 Secrets of Irresistible People

By Travis Bradberry

Some people, regardless of what they lack--money, looks, or social connections--always radiate energy and confidence. Even the most skeptical individuals find themselves enamored with these charming personalities.

These people are the life of every party. They're the ones you turn to for help, advice, and companionship.

You just can't get enough of them, and they leave you asking yourself, "What do they have that I don't? What makes them so irresistible?"

The difference? Their sense of self-worth comes from within.

Irresistible people aren't constantly searching for validation, because they're confident enough to find it in themselves. There are certain habits they pursue every day to maintain this healthy perspective.

Since being irresistible isn't the result of dumb luck, it's time to study the habits of irresistible people so that you can use them to your benefit.

Get ready to say "hello" to a new, more irresistible you.

1. They treat EVERYONE with respect.

Whether interacting with their biggest client or a server taking their drink order, irresistible people are unfailingly polite and respectful. They understand that--no matter how nice they are to the person they're having lunch with--it's all for naught if that person witnesses them behaving badly toward someone else. Irresistible people treat everyone with respect because they believe they're no better than anyone else.

2. They follow the platinum rule.

The golden rule--treat others as you want to be treated--has a fatal flaw: It assumes that all people want to be treated the same way. It ignores that people are motivated by vastly different things. One person loves public recognition, while another loathes being the center of attention.

The platinum rule--treat others as they want to be treated--corrects that flaw. Irresistible people are great at reading other people, and they adjust their behaviour and style to make others feel comfortable.
3. They ditch the small talk.

There's no surer way to prevent an emotional connection from forming during a conversation than by sticking to small talk. When you robotically approach people with small talk, this puts their brains on autopilot and prevents them from having any real affinity for you. Irresistible people create connection and find depth even in short, everyday conversations. Their genuine interest in other people makes it easy for them to ask good questions and relate what they're told to other important facets of the speaker's life.

4. They focus on people more than anything else.

Irresistible people possess an authentic interest in those around them. As a result, they don't spend much time thinking about themselves. They don't obsess over how well they're liked, because they're too busy focusing on the people they're with. It's what makes their irresistibility seem so effortless.

To put this habit to work for you, try putting down the smartphone and focusing on the people you're with. Focus on what they're saying, not what your response will be, or how what they're saying will affect you. When people tell you something about themselves, follow up with open-ended questions to draw them out even more.


5. They don't try too hard.

Irresistible people don't dominate the conversation with stories about how smart and successful they are. It's not that they're resisting the urge to brag. The thought doesn't even occur to them because they know how unlikable people are who try too hard to get others to like them.

6. They recognize the difference between fact and opinion.

Irresistible people handle controversial topics and touchy subjects with grace and poise. They don't shrink from sharing their opinions, but they make it clear that they're opinions, not facts. Whether discussing global warming, politics, vaccine schedules, or GMO foods, irresistible people recognize that many people who are just as intelligent as they are see things differently.

7. They are authentic.

Irresistible people are who they are. Nobody has to burn up energy or brainpower trying to guess their agenda or predict what they'll do next. They do this because they know that no one likes a fake.

People gravitate toward authentic individuals because they know they can trust them. It's easy to resist someone when you don't know who they really are and how they really feel.

8. They have integrity.

People with high integrity are irresistible because they walk their talk, plain and simple. Integrity is a simple concept but a difficult thing to practice. To demonstrate integrity every day, irresistible people follow through, they avoid talking bad about other people, and they do the right thing, even when it hurts.

9. They smile.

People naturally (and unconsciously) mirror the body language of the person they're talking to. If you want people to find you irresistible, smile at them during conversations and they will unconsciously return the favor and feel good as a result.

10. They make an effort to look their best (just not too much of an effort).

There's a massive difference between being presentable and being vain. Irresistible people understand that making an effort to look your best is comparable to cleaning your house before company comes--it's a sign of respect for others. But once they've made themselves presentable, they stop thinking about it.

11. They find reasons to love life.

Irresistible people are positive and passionate. They're never bored, because they see life as an amazing adventure and approach it with a joy that other people want to be a part of.

It's not that irresistible people don't have problems--even big ones--but they approach problems as temporary obstacles, not inescapable fate. When things go wrong, they remind themselves that a bad day is just one day, and they keep hoping that tomorrow or next week or next month will be better.
Bringing it all together.

Irresistible people did not have fairy godmothers hovering over their cribs. They've simply perfected certain appealing qualities and habits that anyone can adopt as his or her own.

They think about other people more than they think about themselves, and they make other people feel liked, respected, understood, and seen. Just remember: The more you focus on others, the more irresistible you'll be.
www.inc.com

Risk, fear and worry - (Apply to trading too)

They're not the same.

Risk is all around us. When we encounter potential points of failure, we're face to face with risk. And nothing courts risk more than art, the desire to do something for the first time--to make a difference.

Fear is a natural reaction to risk. While risk is real and external, fear exists only in our imagination. Fear is the workout we give ourselves imagining what will happen if things don't work out.

And worry? Worry is the hard work of actively (and mentally) working against the fear. Worry is our effort to imagine every possible way to avoid the outcome that is causing us fear, and failing that, to survive the thing that we fear if it comes to fruition.

If you've persuaded yourself that risk is sufficient cause for fear, and that fear is sufficient cause for worry, you're in for some long nights and soon you'll abandon your art out of exhaustion. On the other hand, you can choose to see the three as completely separate phenomena, and realize that it's possible to have risk (a good thing) without debilitating fear or its best friend, obsessive worry.

Separate first, eliminate false causation, then go ahead and do your best work.
http://sethgodin.typepad.com/

Quote for the day

"Kindness is more important than wisdom, and the recognition of this is the beginning of wisdom." - Theodore Isaac Rubin

Friday, 20 November 2015

20-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary


Quote for the day

“No two ideals were ever more incompatible than the security of conformity and the freedom of individuality. After the choice is made, the rest is easy — unless you don't have the guts to stick by your choice.” - Hunter S. Thompson

Thursday, 19 November 2015

19-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary

Quote for the day

“You must have the discipline and temperament to resist your impulses. Human beings have precisely the wrong instincts when it comes to the markets. If you recognize this, you can resist the urge to buy into a rally and sell into a decline.” - Irving Kahn

Wednesday, 18 November 2015

18-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary


Quote for the day

"As a general rule the most successful man in life is the man who has the best information!" - Benjamin Disraeli

Tuesday, 17 November 2015

17-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary



52 week high and low prices reached in today's trading session

Crossings - 17/11/2015 & Top 10 Contributors to Change ASPI
http://www.cse.lk/cmt/upload_cse_report_file/daily_report_376_17-11-2015.pdf

Top 10 Gainer / Loser / Turnover / Volume for the day


Top 10 Foreign Activity for the Day

Quote for the day

"Decisions without actions are pointless. Actions without decisions are reckless." - John Boyd

Monday, 16 November 2015

16-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary


Quote for the day

"It's not the most talented people who survive, but the ones with the most drive."
- Norma Kamali

Sunday, 15 November 2015

Quote for the day

"Three ways to get paid for your words: 
1) Lie to people who want to be lied to, and you'll get rich; 
2) Tell the truth to those who want the truth, and you'll make a living; 
3) Tell the truth to those who want to be lied to, and you'll go broke." - Jason Zweig

Saturday, 14 November 2015

Growth Mindset vs. Fixed Mindset


Quote for the day

“Those who make wise decisions are more formidable to their enemies than those who rush madly into strong action.” - Thucydides

Friday, 13 November 2015

13-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary


Quote for the day

“Being contrarian at the wrong time is akin to arguing with a herd of cattle.” - Jack Sparrow

Thursday, 12 November 2015

12-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary


Quote for the day

“Tight congestions in which a breakout occurs for reasons that nobody understands are usually good risk-reward trades.” - Bruce Kovner

Wednesday, 11 November 2015

11-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary


Colombo Stock Exchange Holidays for 2016


Holidays, Ex dividend Datess, Dividend Payment Dates, AGM & EGM Dates and more could be find in the below link.

Quote for the day

"Everyone tends to see the same things, read the same newspapers and get the same data feeds. The only way to arrive at a different answer from everybody else is to organize the data in different ways, or bring to the analytic process things that are not typically present." - Bill Miller

Tuesday, 10 November 2015

Sri Lanka's Top 100 Valuable Brands - 2015

www.lmd.lk

What are Sovereign Bonds?

Sovereign bonds are debt securities issued by national governments. These bonds can be denominated in either local currency or a global currency, like the U.S. dollar or euro. The proceeds from these bond sales are used to fund a government's day-to-day operations, as well as to repay older debts that are maturing.

Sovereign Bond Yields

Sovereign bond yields are the interest rate the governments pay on their debt.

Like corporate bonds, these bond yields depend on the risks involved for the buyers. These risks primarily include the exchange rate (if the bonds are priced in local currency) and sovereign risks that can lead to a possible default on the interest payments or principal.

Here's a quick summary of the three major determinants of sovereign bond yields:

Creditworthiness - Creditworthiness is the perceived ability of a country to repay its debts given its current situation. Often times, investors rely on ratings agencies to determine this creditworthiness for them.


Country Risk - Sovereign risks are external factors that may arise and jeopardize a country's ability to repay its debts. For instance, volatile politics could play a role in raising the risk of a default in some cases.

Exchange Rate - Exchange rates have a large effect on sovereign bonds denominated in local currencies. In fact, some countries have inflated their way out of debts by simply issuing more currency, making the debt less valuable.

Sovereign Bond Ratings

Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch are the three most popular providers of sovereign bond ratings.

While there are many other boutique agencies, the "big three" ratings agencies carry the most weight among global investors. The upgrades and downgrades made by these agencies can lead to significant changes in sovereign bond yields.

Sovereign bond ratings depend on several factors, including:
  • Per Capita Income
  • Gross Domestic Product Growth
  • Inflation
  • External Debts
  • History of Defaulting
  • Economic Development

Sovereign Bond Defaults

Sovereign bond defaults aren't common, but they have happened in the past. The most recent major default was in 2002 when Argentina wasn't able to repay its debt after a recession in the late 1990s. Since the country's currency was pegged to the U.S. dollar, the government couldn't inflate its way out of its problems and ultimately defaulted.

Two other popular examples were in Russia and North Korea. Russia defaulted on its sovereign bonds in 1998 and shocked the international community, who assumed that major world powers wouldn't default on their debt. And in 1987, North Korea defaulted on its debts after mismanaging its industrial sector and spending too much money on its military.

Buying Sovereign Bonds

Investors can buy sovereign bonds through a variety of channels. U.S. Treasury bonds can be purchased directly through the U.S. Treasury, via TreasuryDirect.gov, or within most U.S. brokerage accounts. However, buying foreign sovereign bonds can be significantly more difficult for investors based in the U.S., particularly if they want to use U.S. exchanges.

Foreign sovereign bonds are easiest purchased via exchange-traded funds (ETFs).Sovereign bond ETFs enable investors to purchase sovereign bonds in an equity form that can be easily traded on U.S. stock exchanges. These diversified ETFs typically hold a number of bonds at various maturities and provide a more stable investment than individual sovereign bonds.

Some Tips to Remember

  • Sovereign bonds are debt securities issued by national governments in either a local currency or an international currency, like the U.S. dollar or euro.
  • Sovereign bond yields are primarily affected by creditworthiness, country risk and exchange rates.
  • Sovereign bond ratings are typically issued by Standard & Poor's, Moody's, and Fitch, and provide investors with an idea of a sovereign bond's risk.
  • Investors can purchase sovereign bonds easiest through exchange-traded funds traded on U.S. exchanges.
Source: http://internationalinvest.about.com/

Quote for the day

“Turning conservative after a crisis smacks of closing the barn door after the horse has left, but it's a regular feature of investor psychology.” -  Howard Marks

Monday, 9 November 2015

09-Nov-2015 CSE Trade Summary



Quote for the day

“Facts are stubborn things; and whatever may be our wishes, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passion, they cannot alter the state of facts and evidence.” – John Adams

Sunday, 8 November 2015

What is Sovereign Debt?

Sovereign debt is simply money or credit owed by a government to its creditors. These debts typically include securities, bonds or bills with maturity dates ranging from less than a year to more than ten years. 

But the term can also be used to describe future obligations like pensions, entitlement programs, and other goods and services that were contracted but not paid.

Concerns around sovereign debt have been growing since World War II.

During that time, many countries went into debt to finance either the war itself or the rebuilding efforts afterwards. However, modern Keynesian economics supports a fairly high level of public debt to pay for public investment in lean times under the premise that it can be paid back by the growth that follows.

Measuring Sovereign Debt

Sovereign debt is can be measured using a variety of different metrics. Often times, these metrics are used in order to determine if a country's sovereign debt is too high given its gross domestic product (GDP) or abilities to tax its citizens. But these factors should also take into account a country' GDP growth rate, which can dramatically influence its future ability to repay debt.

The three most popular metrics are:


1. Total Public Debt -
The total public debt is the total amount of debt outstanding. But without context, this figure isn't very informative and can be misleading. As a result, most experts look towards Debt-to-GDP and Debt per Capita as common measures.

2. Debt as a Percent of GDP - Debt as a percentage of gross domestic product is simply the total public debt divided by GDP. Countries with a debt greater than their GDP (or a ratio over 100%) are generally considered to be over indebted.

3. Debt per Capita - Debt per capita is simply the total debt divided by the number of citizens. A debt per capita that is in excess of per capita income reduces the likelihood that the government will be able to make up its shortfall through traditional taxation.


International investors can find the levels of public sector debt via the World Bank, CIA World Factbook or individual central bank websites.

Sovereign Debt Statistics

Sovereign debt levels have been on the rise since World War II. From Russia's financial crisis in 1998 to Argentina's default in 2001, these debts have been the source of much financial turmoil. But what countries are most at-risk and what countries are deemed safe for international investors? 


Below are some statistics from www.tradingeconomics.com/

Sovereign Debt Ratings

Sovereign debt ratings can help investors determine the credit risks associated with a given country by taking into account not only debt levels, but political risk, regulatory risk and other factors. Some studies have shown that these ratings can influence debt costs by as much as 25% per notch. The three most popular credit rating agencies are Standard & Poor's, Moody's Investor Services, and Fitch Ratings.


Edited article from http://internationalinvest.about.com/




Last PreviousHighestLowestUnitReferenceFrequency
Japan230.00224.20230.0050.60
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Greece177.10175.00177.1022.60
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Lebanon134.41133.36185.19130.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Jamaica132.72135.50135.5087.31
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Italy132.30128.50132.3090.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Portugal130.20129.70130.2048.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Cape Verde114.22101.63114.2254.28
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Ireland109.70123.20123.2024.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Cyprus107.50102.20107.5048.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Belgium106.50104.40133.1074.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
United States102.98101.17121.7031.70
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Bhutan101.3098.40101.3036.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Singapore99.30103.20106.2066.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Spain97.7092.1097.7016.60
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
France95.0092.3095.0020.70
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Euro Area91.9090.9091.9066.20
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Egypt90.5087.10102.3073.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
United Kingdom89.4087.3089.4031.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Jordan86.6880.17219.7360.24
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Canada86.5187.66101.7066.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Iceland86.4091.40101.0023.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Austria84.5080.9084.5056.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Slovenia80.9070.3080.9018.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Croatia80.6076.0080.6034.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Sudan79.0070.70139.3056.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Zimbabwe77.0066.20147.7031.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Hungary76.9077.3082.200.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Sri Lanka75.5078.30103.2075.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Germany74.7077.1080.3055.60
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Bahamas73.4066.2073.4023.20
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Ukraine71.2140.6571.2112.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Serbia70.9059.60201.2028.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Albania69.1164.8284.6053.43
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Netherlands68.8068.6076.1045.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Sao Tome and Principe68.2372.45309.2033.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Malta68.0069.2069.8035.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Ghana67.6055.64125.4026.20
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Israel67.5067.6096.7067.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Mauritania66.9065.60280.4560.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Belize66.3066.7087.1031.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
India66.1065.8084.3065.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Guyana65.8063.90135.7059.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Seychelles65.0069.0087.0049.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Pakistan64.3064.8087.9054.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Morocco63.8961.70117.7121.66
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Uruguay62.8062.10111.5554.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
El Salvador62.3861.3762.3837.35
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Laos62.0333.4381.7033.43
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Finland59.3055.6059.3010.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Brazil58.9156.8060.9053.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Costa Rica58.3255.8858.6836.57
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Montenegro56.8453.9756.8427.50
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Mozambique55.4046.90138.4037.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Slovakia53.6054.6054.6027.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Malaysia52.8054.7080.7431.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Mauritius52.8058.3063.7048.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Mongolia51.7045.30105.5024.50
percent
Dec/11Yearly[+]
Fiji50.6051.4056.2033.69
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Vietnam50.5054.9854.9831.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Poland50.1055.7055.7036.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Yemen49.9551.7051.8027.20
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Kenya49.8044.5078.3042.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Venezuela49.8045.9071.9026.30
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Nicaragua49.1049.80169.1049.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Gambia47.7044.50117.4035.10
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Tunisia47.5044.3869.9040.20
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Kyrgyzstan46.7043.80122.2743.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Macedonia45.9040.4048.8023.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Lesotho45.8037.7088.6636.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Dominican Republic45.7946.1446.1416.43
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Thailand45.7043.7057.8015.20
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Panama45.6041.70115.7541.70
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Philippines45.4049.2074.9045.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Denmark45.2045.0058.1027.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Eritrea45.0029.1062.5029.10
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Djibouti44.5648.1067.8044.56
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Sweden43.9038.7073.2036.20
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Argentina43.0038.80166.0033.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Czech Republic42.7545.1845.1812.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Honduras42.6342.1768.0623.07
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Bahrain42.0041.3042.008.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Central African Republic41.8350.5797.4030.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Trinidad and Tobago41.6038.6058.8413.18
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Armenia41.2338.4546.2113.56
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
China41.0639.3841.0619.99
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Lithuania40.9038.8040.9015.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Latvia40.0038.2044.509.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Tanzania39.9039.5066.6031.10
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Myanmar39.7240.81140.9539.72
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Romania39.6038.0039.6012.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
South Africa39.0037.0043.5027.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Papua New Guinea38.8032.7071.0623.60
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Colombia38.0035.8045.6023.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Sierra Leone37.6536.90247.3834.96
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Iraq37.0232.10334.8532.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Georgia36.8037.9043.6221.55
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Belarus36.7138.46112.500.15
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Taiwan36.5035.8036.5011.19
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Ivory Coast36.4139.9284.2029.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
South Korea35.9834.5235.988.24
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Senegal35.2029.6072.6017.70
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Madagascar34.9034.00111.8824.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Uganda34.7033.2684.4022.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Switzerland34.2034.9051.6025.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Republic of the Congo34.0032.00270.1822.89
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Australia33.8830.9033.889.70
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Liberia33.2026.60720.7326.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Turkey33.0035.8577.9033.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Bolivia32.4032.6080.4032.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Hong Kong32.0033.8435.4713.70
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Qatar31.4832.1167.138.03
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Angola31.0034.57104.5020.60
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Zambia31.0028.80277.5328.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Guinea Bissau30.8026.70209.5021.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Mexico30.7028.6037.2017.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
New Zealand30.4331.0061.0214.55
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Bosnia and Herzegovina30.4028.2056.0417.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Syria30.0131.21189.7630.01
percent
Dec/10Yearly[+]
Ecuador29.8024.2085.5016.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Nepal28.8031.9069.5028.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Ethiopia28.6027.4041.8024.70
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Bulgaria28.4028.4077.6013.20
percent
Aug/15Monthly[+]
Tajikistan28.3429.18111.7828.34
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Burkina Faso28.3022.4843.4020.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Cambodia28.1228.7643.1627.46
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Rwanda28.0029.42119.5021.27
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Gabon27.7026.9086.9616.73
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Haiti26.7021.3260.8811.97
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Norway26.4029.3053.8026.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Comoros26.3051.3078.1026.30
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Suriname26.2029.20114.9816.86
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Indonesia25.0224.9087.4322.96
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Niger24.8023.8069.9015.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Moldova24.6023.60159.4219.27
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Maldives24.4029.4047.3524.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Guatemala24.3125.3650.4520.82
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Namibia24.0021.8027.4914.22
percent
Mar/15Quarterly[+]
Chad23.8030.2061.9023.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Luxembourg23.6024.0024.006.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Botswana23.1026.0026.005.98
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Guinea20.8122.97113.0020.81
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Togo20.8017.30124.0013.60
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Peru20.7020.3047.1020.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Cuba20.2021.1021.1014.80
percent
Dec/11Yearly[+]
Cameroon19.9013.40131.449.30
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Congo19.6918.88181.6218.88
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Cayman Islands19.5021.1024.507.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Benin18.3018.0058.2011.40
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Bangladesh18.0018.9044.9018.00
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Malawi18.0025.50119.7014.60
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Russia17.9214.0299.007.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Palestine17.3619.0426.362.93
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Turkmenistan16.8021.1064.412.42
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Iran16.3615.7622.678.93
percent
Dec/15Yearly[+]
United Arab Emirates15.6815.8724.102.70
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Paraguay15.1612.6066.9012.50
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Chile15.1012.8031.403.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Kazakhstan14.8612.8617.605.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Burundi14.2015.10224.6014.20
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Azerbaijan13.7511.6024.207.30
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Kosovo11.2110.7611.215.51
percent of GDP
Jun/15Quarterly[+]
Estonia10.6010.1010.603.70
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Nigeria10.5011.0088.0010.50
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Swaziland9.909.9826.168.78
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Algeria8.768.32116.208.32
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Uzbekistan8.708.5859.388.58
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Equatorial Guinea7.608.99325.600.80
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Kuwait7.146.54203.361.09
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Afghanistan6.606.70184.006.60
percent
Dec/13Yearly[+]
Libya6.106.8021.205.90
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Oman4.804.9038.574.10
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Brunei2.602.482.600.00
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]
Saudi Arabia1.602.20103.501.60
percent
Dec/14Yearly[+]